What is Azoospermia?
Azoospermia is the situation when no sperm is seen in the semen. Azoospermia is found in 1% of the general population and 10-15% of the men who cannot have a child (infertile). In the presence of azoospermia, hormone tests and chromosomal analysis of man should be performed. The chromosomal disorder rate in this group is 15%. The most common one is Klinefelter Syndrome. The cause of azoospermia in these patients may be hormonal or genetic disorders, undescended testicles in childhood or operations made for hernias, late notice that the testicles are not in place, being operated at an adult age, the testicles are not in place (crawling out of the groin into the bag, in the groin, or in the abdomen, etc.), febrile infections during childhood that disrupt activity by inflating testicles (mumps, meningitis, etc.), being exposed to post-operative chemotherapy or radiotherapy due to testicular tumor, various traumas (traffic accidents, sports injuries), having no sperm canals congenitally, being not developed or become obstructed.
About 7% of individuals with azoospermia have genetic disorders. This can be diagnosed by examining red blood cells. It is possible to prevent transmission of genetic defect to baby by controlling the number of chromosomes with PGD during in vitro fertilization application.
How To Treat Azoospermia?
In azoospermic cases, sperm is searched from testicular tissue by performing operations such as TESA, TESE, Micro-TESE which are surgical sperm search methods. If sperm is obtained, baby process starts and the patient is treated. If the sperm cell is not found after the procedure, the only solution is to have a child with sperm donation or sperm transplantation treatment. Sperm donation is an in vitro fertilization method in which bank sperms of a man who has no medical and infertility problem.